A Brief Review on Recent Epidemiologic Literature and Risk Factors of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Yugo Narita 1,2 1Fundamental Nursing, Course of Nursing, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine 2Department of Neurology, Mie University Hospital Keyword: 疫学 , 筋萎縮性側索硬化症 , ALS , 発症リスク , 喫煙 , メンデルランダム化法 , epidemiology , amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , risk factor , smoking , Mendelian randomization pp.1129-1137
Published Date 2019/11/1
DOI https://doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201422
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This brief review of recent epidemiologic literature and risk factors of sporadic ALS found that the incidence and prevalence of the condition is higher among Caucasians and lower in East Asians, with the Japanese in the middle. The review also found that worldwide, the prevalence increases with age and the condition is 1.3 to 1.6 times higher in males than in females. The number of patients with ALS was calculated based on official diagnostic certificates from fiscal 1997 to 2015 obtained from a registry managed by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The data matched with those reported in the guidelines of the Japanese Society of Neurology (2013), with an incidence of 1.1-2.5, and prevalence 7.0-8.5/100,000 people. Smoking has been considered an established risk factor for sporadic ALS. The following possible risk factors have been speculated but are to be confirmed: excessive physical activity, head trauma, farming, environmental pollutants, pesticides, exposure to certain metals/heavy metals, electromagnetic fields, alcohol, low BMI, and low-density lipoprotein. Bandres-Ciga et al. applied linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization to a large data set and concluded that elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ALS.

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