Child's “Kakugo” and its Influential Factors for Procedure and/or Treatment Hitomi Katsuda 1 , Noriko Katada 1 , Michiko Ebina 2 , Keiko Ninomiya 2 , Hiromi Handa 3 , Atsuko Suzuki 4 , Hiromi Naragino 4 , Kanami Kamata 5 , Mayumi Tsutsui 6 , Naoko Iimura 6 , Hiromi Komiyama 7 , Keiko Murata 8 1College of Nursing Art and Science, Hyogo 2Kobe City College of Nursing 3Graduate School of Nursing, College of Nursing Art and Science, Hyogo 4Osaka University, School of Health Science 5Osaka Prefecture College of Health Sciences 6The Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing 7Graduate School of Nursing, The Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing 8Kobe University, School of Medicine Keyword: 子ども , 検査 , 処置 , 覚悟 , 自己コントロール , 自我機能 , child , procedure treatment , Kakugo , self-control , ego function pp.12-25
Published Date 2001/8/15
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 The purpose of this study is to clarify the child's experience when he/she is facing a procedure and/or treatment. The design of the study was a inductive qualitative method. The data was obtained through observation and interview. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data. Children who are receiving procedure/treatment were observed. Interview was conducted to 18 paired of child, parent, nurse, and physician who had participated in the child's procedure/treatment.

 When children were facing and starting the procedure and treatment, children seem to go through the emotional/cognitive state to determine to accept the consequence. We had named this phenomena as a“Kakugo” of the child. Furthermore, when the child had to do Kakugo, the child was balancing emotion, cognition, and psychomotor aspects. After the Kakugo, the child would face the procedure/treatment with full acceptance. Factors influence the child's Kakugo were identified as following: people surrounding the child, image of past experience, possibility of child choice of action, feeling oneness with people surrounding, some benefit for procedure/treatment, and declaration of own Kakugo.

 Above mentioned factors were summarized into three ways to strengthen the child's ability to control the situation. The first one is to promote child's potential to utilize his/her ego power to balance cognition and emotional preparedness. The second is participant's understanding of the child as the primary person who has to balance his/her emotion and cognition. This understanding would enhance the feeling of self-control in the child which will promote child's ability to control his/her behavior. The third is for the child to find a good timing with others to make a Kakugo which lead the child to take action.

Copyright © 2001, Japan Academy of Nursing Science. All rights reserved.


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