Respiratory control and the pathophysiology of dyspnea Erika YAWATA 1 , Shota TANABE 2 1Division of Emergency Medicine/Division of Family Medicine University of Fukui Hospital 2Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine St. Marianna University Hospital pp.27-35
Published Date 2020/1/1
DOI https://doi.org/10.11477/mf.3102200706
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The components of respiratory control include a neural network in the respiratory center, chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. Respiratory rhythm and ventilation are generated by the brainstem extending from the pons to the lower medulla. Chemoreceptors sense changes in CO2, O2 and pH, then the afferent signals from the chemoreceptors travel to the brainstem via the vagus nerves. Sensory information regarding bronchoconstriction, pulmonary stretch, and chest wall muscular action is sent from mechanoreceptors to the brainstem. Breathing is regulated to maintain homeostasis in the blood and tissues. Dyspnea is caused by a mismatch between motor commands and incoming afferent information from sensory receptors and plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. We describe the pathophysiology of respiratory control to better understand dyspnea,in addition to the mechanism of dyspnea.

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