Morphological Diagnosis and Molecular Biology Atsushi Ochiai 1 1Pathology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East Keyword: 形態診断 , 分子生物学 , PCR , 治療法選択 , microdissection pp.1635-1640
Published Date 2000/12/25
DOI https://doi.org/10.11477/mf.1403104933
  • Abstract
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 Recent development of molecular biology makes it possible to read the whole human genome sequence. This new molecular biological technology and information concerning the human genome sequence will facilitate the discovery of the molecular mechanism involved in the morphology and pathology of diseases. Molecular biology will become important for pathological diagnosis not only for accurate morphological diagnosis but for providing additional clinicopathological information useful for selection of therapy. The recent increase of information concerning molecular biology has already been routinely applied for pathological diagnosis by using immunohistochemical staining with various antibodies. Antibodies recognizing molecular function have also been developed and applied for studies. Amplificaion of epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) which belongs to the family of oncogene ERB has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis of esophageal carcinoma. EGF-R is stimulated and phosphorylated by EGF. A monoclonal antibody to phosphorylated EGF-R reactes specifically to activated EGF-R in cancer cells. We can find gene mutation immunohistochemically by using a mutation specific antibody. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based techniques combined with a microdissection system using a laser beam can facilitate the detection of cell specific gene alterations and expression from pathological samples. Development of DNA chips and DNA microarray techniques can make it easy to investigate a variety of genes in a short time. Recent advanced techniques of molecular biology may add various factors of clinical information to morphological diagnosis and will be applied in routine pathological diagnosis in the near future.

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