Physiology of carbon dioxide Katsuki KANAI 1 , Tatsuya FUJIHARA 2 , Ryosuke ISHIDA 1,3 1Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital 2Department of Anesthesia Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital 3Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine pp.55-65
Published Date 2020/1/1
DOI https://doi.org/10.11477/mf.3102200709
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by the metabolism of organic compounds, and then transported in the dissolved state, as bicarbonate ions or a carbamino complex. Eventually, CO2 diffuses through the respiratory membrane and is discharged from the body by ventilation. A reduction in ventilatory drive, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and the Haldane effect are the mechanisms of CO2 accumulation, which can lead to CO2 narcosis. End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) is commonly used to monitor patients clinically. Although it is non-invasive and useful, we should be familiar with the difference between the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood and alveolar air which is derived from physiological dead space or a shunt.

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