Treatment of Non-Traumatic Spinal Epidural Hematoma:A Report of Five Cases and a Systematic Review of the Literature Yukinori TERADA 1 , Hiroki TODA 1 , Hirokuni HASHIKATA 1 , Yu YAMAMOTO 1 , Yasunori NAGAI 1 , Naoya YOSHIMOTO 1 , Masanori GOTO 1 , Namiko NISHIDA 1 , Koichi IWASAKI 1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Kitano Hospital Keyword: spinal epidural hematoma , therapeutic management , treatment algorithm pp.669-677
Published Date 2016/8/10
DOI https://doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436203352
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 Objective:Non-traumatic spinal epidural hematoma(SEH)is relatively rare. We report five cases of SEH, review the relevant literature, and discuss the current treatment strategies for non-traumatic SEH in Japan.

 Methods:Clinical data of cases with non-traumatic SEH treated at our institute from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. In addition, we identified the relevant literature using the Japan Medical Abstracts Society databases for peer-reviewed articles published from Jan 1,1995 to Aug 31,2015. The search terms “spinal”, “epidural hematoma”, and “non-traumatic OR spontaneous” were used. Treatment strategies were summarized according to the treatment criteria.

 Results:Five patients(1 man and 4 women;age, 59-86 years;mean age, 74 years)were treated for SEH. Hematomas were located in the cervical(n=1), cervicothoracic(n=2), thoracic(n=1), and thoracolumbar(n=1)regions. All patients suffered sudden neck and/or back pain followed by subsequent neurological deterioration. Four patients were under antithrombotic treatment, and underwent laminectomy and drainage of the hematoma due to severe and progressive neurological deficits. All patients demonstrated significant neurological recovery. Seventy-seven articles from domestic institutes and hospitals were identified. Their criteria for conservative and surgical treatments differed based on the time from the onset and severity.

 Conclusion:Five cases of non-traumatic SEH were treated successfully. Patients with moderate to severe neurological deficit need timely surgical management, while non-surgical treatment may be indicated in mild deficits. To standardize the optimal treatment for non-traumatic SEH, an appropriate assessment system incorporating the time from onset and severity of neurological impairment should be established.

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